Xenorhabdus bacterium has been used as a biological control agent against Luciaphorus sp., a mushroom mite endemic in Thailand. To develop an effective formulation of Xenorhabdus stokiae, treatments using different parts of X. stokiae isolate PB09 culture, including whole cell suspension, cell-free supernatant, and crude cell extract, were performed. The results show that different parts of X. stokiae isolate PB09 culture could induce variable effects on mite mortality and fecundity. Application with cell-free supernatant of X. stokiae culture resulted in both the highest mite mortality rate [(89.00±3.60)%] and the lowest mite fecundity [(41.33±23.69) eggs/gravid female]. Whole cell suspension of X. stokiae isolate PB09 culture was found to be slightly less effective than its cell-free supernatant, suggesting that X. stokiae was more likely to release its metabolites with acaricidal activities to the surrounding culture media. Crude cell extract of X. stokiae was not effective against mites. Cell-free supernatant of X. stokiae isolate PB09 was the most effective biological control agent and it could be conveniently used in future formulations instead of live bacteria.
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