Treatment of broad bean leaves with salicylic acid (SA) or 2, 6-dichloro-isonicotinic acid (DCINA) induces resistance against the rust fungus Uromyces fabae resulting in reduced rust pustule density. Light-microscopy studies showed that in induced resistant plants the rust fungus is inhibited immediately after penetration through the stomatal pore. The differentiation of infection structures growing within the intercellular space of the leaf, i.e. infection hyphae and haustorial mother cells, is inhibited. Furthermore, low-temperature scanning electron microscopy studies of freeze fractures revealed protrusions at the tips of infection hyphae growing in induced resistant broad bean leaves. Treatment of in vitro-differentiating rust infection structures with intercellular fluids (IFs) from induced resistant plants confirmed that the fungus is sensitive towards an apoplastic anti-fungal activity only after having formed appressoria. Other legume rusts such as U. vignae and U. appendiculatus were likewise inhibited in the presence of IF from SA-treated broad bean leaves. Heterologous antibodies were used to study changes in the extracellular pathogenesis-related (PR) protein pattern after resistance induction. Western blots indicated that chitinases and beta-1,3-glucanases were present in both induced and control plants. In contrast, PR-1 proteins were newly synthesized in response to SA or DCINA application. The major induced PR-1 protein was purified and exhibited strong differentiation-inhibiting activity towards U. fabae infection structures. We conclude that the inhibition of rust infection hyphae in acquired resistant broad bean plants is mainly due to the anti-fungal activity of this induced basic PR-1 protein.