Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase is one of the regulatory enzymes of gluconeogenesis in kidney cortex. The effect of ribose 1,5-bisphosphate on fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase purified from rat kidney cortex was studied. Rat kidney cortex, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase exhibited hyperbolic kinetics with regard to its substrate, but the activity was inhibited by ribose 1,5-bisphosphate at nanomolar concentrations. The inhibitory effect of ribose 1,5-bisphosphate on the fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase was enhanced in the presence of AMP, one of the inhibitors of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, which is an inhibitor of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, inhibited rat kidney cortex fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activities at a low concentration of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate but a high concentration of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate relieved fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase from fructose-2,6-bisphosphate-dependent inhibition. On the contrary, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate was not effective for the recovery of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase from ribose 1,5-bisphosphate-dependent inhibition. These results suggest that ribose 1,5-bisphosphate is a potent inhibitor and is involved in the regulation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in rat kidney cortex.