A full-length lipoxygenase cDNA (RCI-1) has been cloned from rice (Oryza sativa) whose corresponding transcripts accumulate in response to treatment of the plants with chemical inducers of acquired resistance such as benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH), 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA), and probenazole. In contrast, RCI-1 transcript levels did not increase after inoculation with compatible and incompatible races of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea and the nonhost pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. RCI-1 transcript levels also increased after exogenous application of jasmonic acid, but not upon wounding. Dose-response and time course experiments revealed a similar pattern of transcript accumulation and lipoxygenase activity in BTH-treated rice leaves. Enzymatic analysis of recombinant RCI-1 protein produced in Escherichia coli revealed that 13-hydroperoxy-octadecanoic acids were the predominant reaction products when either linoleic or linolenic acid used as a substrate. The RCI-1 sequence features a putative chloroplast targeting sequence at its N-terminus. Indeed, a protein consisting of the putative chloroplast transit peptide fused to green fluorescent protein was exclusively localized in chloroplasts, indicating that RCI-1 is a chloroplastic enzyme.