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Measurement of trihalomethanes in potable and recreational waters using solid phase micro extraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Chemosphere (2000-11-01)
M A Stack, G Fitzgerald, S O'Connell, K J James
ABSTRACT

Solid phase micro extraction (SPME) was applied to the determination of selected trihalomethanes (THMs), chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, bromoform, in potable and recreational waters. The selected samples were environmentally significant due to mandatory limits imposed by regulatory agencies. Extraction of the analytes was performed using headspace SPME (fused silica fibre with a 100 microm poly(dimethylsiloxane coating) followed by thermal desorption at 220 degrees C and GC-MS analysis. A linear working range of 10-160 microg/l was established with relative standard deviations (%RSD) within the range, 0.9-19%. Limits of detection (LOD) were 1.0-2.8 microg/l. The highest THM concentration was 61.8 microg/l which was well within the proposed European Union directive of 100 microg/l. The total THMs determined in swimming pool waters ranged from 105-134 microg/l, with chloroform accounting for 84-86% of total THM.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Dibromochloromethane, 97%
Supelco
SPME Portable Field Sampler, coating PDMS
Supelco
SPME/HPLC Interface, rheodyne valve version
Supelco
SPME Sampling Stand, for use with 15 mL vials
Supelco
Dibromochloromethane solution, certified reference material, 5000 μg/mL in methanol
Supelco
SPME Portable Field Sampler, coating CAR/PDMS
Supelco
SPME Sampling Stand, for use with 4 mL vials
Supelco
Dibromochloromethane, analytical standard
Supelco
SPME Portable Field Sampler, coating PDMS/DVB
Supelco
Dibromochloromethane solution, certified reference material, 200 μg/mL in methanol
Supelco
Dibromochloromethane, analytical standard
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 75 μm (CAR/PDMS), for use with manual holder, needle size 24 ga
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), needle size 24 ga, for use with manual holder
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly polyacrylate (PA), df 85 μm (PA), for use with manual holder, needle size 24 ga
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 7 μm (PDMS), needle size 24 ga, for use with manual holder
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly, Carbowax-Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Coating, needle size 23 ga, df 60 μm (PEG), metal alloy fiber, for use with manual holder
Supelco
SPME fiber assortment kit 1, for use with manual holder, needle size 24 ga
Supelco
SPME fiber assortment kit 2, for use with manual holder, needle size 24 ga
Supelco
SPME fiber assortment kit 4, for use with manual holder, size 24 ga
Supelco
SPME fiber assortment kit 5, needle size 23 ga, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME LC Tips, C18, tray of 96 ea
Supelco
SPME StableFlex fiber assortment kit, for use with manual holder
Supelco
SPME-OC Fiber Assembly, Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), df 75 μm (Coating thickness includes 65 μm coating + 10 μm OC (overcoating)), needle size 23 ga, pkg of 3 ea, fiber L 1 cm
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 75 μm (CAR/PDMS), needle size 23 ga, for use with manual holder
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), needle size 24 ga, StableFlex, for use with manual holder/autosampler
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly polyacrylate (PA), df 85 μm (PA), for use with autosampler, needle size 24 ga
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 7 μm (PDMS), needle size 24 ga, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME Fiber Assembly Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), df 65 μm (PDMS/DVB), needle size 24 ga, for use with manual holder
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly, Carbowax-Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Coating, needle size 23 ga, df 60 μm (PEG), for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME fiber assortment kit 1, for use with autosampler, needle size 24 ga