A rapid, selective and highly sensitive reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of levosulpiride, 5-(aminosulfonyl)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-2-methoxy benzamide, in human serum and urine. The method involved the extraction with a dichloromethane followed by back-extraction into 0.025 M sulfuric acid. HPLC analysis was carried out using reversed-phase isocratic elution with a Luna C(18)(2) 5 microm column, a mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.01 M potassium hydrogen phosphate (30:70, v/v, adjusted to pH 8.5 with triethylamine), and a fluorescence detector with excitation at 300 nm and emission at 365 nm. The chromatograms showed good resolution and sensitivity and no interference of human serum and urine. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration range 0.25-200 ng/ml for serum and 0.2-20 microg/ml for urine with correlation coefficients greater than 0.997. Intra- and inter-day assay precision and accuracy fulfilled the international requirements. The mean absolute recovery for human serum was 89.8+/-3.7%. The lower limits of quantitation in human serum and urine were 0.25 ng/ml and 0.2 microg/ml, respectively, which were sensitive enough for pharmacokinetic studies. Stability studies showed that levosulpiride in human serum and urine was stable during storage, or during the assay procedure. This method was successfully applied to the study of pharmacokinetics of levosulpiride in human volunteers following a single oral administration of levosulpiride (25 mg) tablet.