Previously, we have reported that sealants incorporating bisphenol A dimethacrylate showed estrogenicity by a reporter gene assay. This study tested the hypothesis that commercial composites, which contain various monomers and additives, exhibit estrogenic activity in vitro. The estrogenic activities of eluates obtained from 24 composites and 18 chemicals identified from the composites tested were examined with the use of the reporter gene assay. Among the 24 composites, 6 products were estrogenic, and among the 18 constituents, 1 photostabilizer, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzophenone (HMBP), 1 photoinitiator, 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenyl-acetophenone (DMPA), and 1 inhibitor, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (BHT) had significant estrogenic activity. The concentration of HMBP in 4 estrogenic eluates was greater than the minimum concentration required for estrogenicity, and DMPA was found at a higher level than the minimum estrogenic concentration in the remaining 2 estrogenic specimens. These results suggest that the observed estrogenic activity of 6 composites is associated with the elution of either HMBP or DMPA.
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