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Improvement of vestibular compensation by Levo-sulpiride in acute unilateral labyrinthine dysfunction.

Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Societa italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale (2004-10-08)
D Zanetti, N Civiero, C Balzanelli, M Tonini, A R Antonelli
ABSTRACT

L-sulpiride is the levorotatory enantiomer of sulpiride, a neuroleptic of the family of benzamide derivatives; it has a characteristic antagonist effect on central DA2 dopaminergic receptors and dopamine DA1 "autoreceptors". Its efficacy in the symptomatic control of acute vertigo spells has been recognized, apart from its well-known antiemetic, antidyspeptic and anti-depressant properties, at high dosages. To establish objective parameters of the results of its clinical application, a randomized prospective study was started comparing the effects of the drug in a group of 87 patients with vertigo of peripheral origin, with those in a control group treated with other vestibular suppressants. The drug was administered via the intravenous route, 25 mg t.i.d., for the first 3 days, then by oral administration, with the same schedule and dosage, for a further 7 days. After clinical evaluation of vestibular signs and symptoms, electronystagmographic recordings of rotatory tests were obtained, at admission and were then controlled after 6 months. A subjective Visual Analogue Scale was also delivered daily to the patients in order to monitor symptomatic improvements. When compared to conventional treatments, L-sulpiride appeared to induce a statistically significant faster recovery in unilateral vestibular lesions. An unexpected favourable outcome of treatment was the facilitation of spontaneous vestibular compensation, in terms of lesser residual labyrinthine dysfunction and reduction of recurrent vertigo attacks during the 6 months follow-up. The mechanisms of action of the drug and its interaction with the vestibular system are discussed.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
(S)-(−)-Sulpiride, ≥98% (titration)
Supelco
(S)-(−)-Sulpiride, VETRANAL®, analytical standard