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Antioxidants and total oxyradical scavenging capacity during grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, embryogenesis.

Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Toxicology & pharmacology : CBP (2005-02-03)
Gary W Winston, Danielle G E Lemaire, Richard F Lee
ABSTRACT

During embryogenesis in grass shrimp the capacity to scavenge oxyradicals increased as measured by the Total Oxyradical Scavenging Capacity (TOSC) assay. The increase in TOSC during embryogenesis was associated with increasing concentrations of a number of antioxidants, including coenzyme Q (ubiquinone), alpha-tocopherol and reduced glutathione. Glutathione concentrations ranged from 0.004 to 0.005 nmol/embryo in early embryo stages and reached concentrations between 0.16 to 0.23 nmol/embryo in late embryo stages. Ascorbate remained essentially constant (0.16-0.20 nmol/embryo) throughout embryogenesis and may provide the preponderance of TOSC during early embryo development. Carotenoids were associated with yolk lipovitellin and these antioxidants decreased as yolk was absorbed during embryogenesis. Astaxanthin and beta-carotene were identified in embryos with astaxanthin always the principal carotenoid. In early embryo stages there are maternally derived antioxidants but as embryogenesis proceeds there is an assembly of a complex antioxidant system by newly formed cells and tissues.

MATERIALS
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Sigma-Aldrich
α-Keto-γ-(methylthio)butyric acid sodium salt, ≥97%