Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is a prooxidant and carcinogen, inducing thyroid tumors. Melatonin and indole-3-propionic acid (IPA) are effective antioxidants. Some antioxidative effects of propylthiouracil (PTU)--a thyrostatic drug--have been found. The aim of the study was to compare protective effects of melatonin, IPA, and PTU against lipid peroxidation in the thyroids, collected from rats treated with KBrO3, and in homogenates of porcine thyroids, incubated in the presence of KBrO3. Wistar rats were administered KBrO3 (110 mg/kg b.w., i.p., on the 10th day of the experiment) and/or melatonin, or IPA (0.0645 mmol/kg b.w., i.p., twice daily, for 10 days), or PTU (0.025% solution in drinking water, for 10 days). Homogenates of porcine thyroids were incubated for 30 min in the presence of KBrO3 (5 mM) plus one of the antioxidants: melatonin (0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 7.5 mM), or IPA (0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 mM), or PTU (0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 mM). The level of lipid peroxidation products (MDA + 4-HDA) was measured spectrophotometrically in thyroid homogenates. In vivo pretreatment with either melatonin or with IPA or with PTU decreased lipid peroxidation caused by KBrO3--injections in rat thyroid gland. Under in vitro conditions, PTU (5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 mM), but neither melatonin nor IPA, reduced KBrO3-related lipid peroxidation in the homogenates of porcine thyroids. In conclusion, melatonin and IPA may be of great value as protective agents under conditions of exposure to KBrO3.