The pentacyclic 1,4-naphthoquinones 1a-d were cytotoxic (IC(50) approximately 2-7 microM) to human leukemic cell lines K562 (oxidative stress-resistant), Lucena-1 (MDR phenotype) and Daudi. Fresh leukemic cells obtained from patients, some with the MDR phenotype, were also sensitive to these compounds. The pentacyclic 1,4-naphthoquinones 1a and 1c induced apoptotic cell death in cells from leukemic patients as determined by flow cytometry. Conversely, the cell lines were highly insensitive to lapachol (2) and alpha-lapachone (3). Mitomycin-C inhibited cell proliferation at concentrations as low as 0.5 microM. The low toxicity against lymphocytes activated by phytohemagglutinin shows that these compounds are selective for the cancer cells studied. Previous data suggest that these compounds (1a-d) can be bioactivated in situ by reduction followed by rearrangement leading to enones, which are powerful alkylating agents. In contrast, lapachol (2) and beta-lapachone (3), which cannot be bioactivated by reduction, showed little activity against the same cell lines.
Research. Development. Production.
We are a leading supplier to the global Life Science industry with solutions and services for research, biotechnology development and production, and pharmaceutical drug therapy development and production.