Polyanhydrides are a promising class of biomaterials for use as vaccine adjuvants and as multi-component implants. Their properties can be tailored for such applications as controlled drug release, drug stability, and/or immune regulation (adjuvant effect). Understanding the induction of immunomodulatory mechanisms of this polymer system is important for the design and development of efficacious vaccines and tissue compatible multi-component implantable devices using this polymer system. This study describes the development of a rapid multiplexed method for the investigation of the adjuvanticity of polyanhydride nanospheres and films using murine dendritic cells (DCs). To assess the immune response, cell surface markers including MHC II, CD86, CD40, and CD209 and cytokines including IL-6, IL-12p40, and IL-10 were measured. The DCs incubated with nanospheres displayed enhanced expression of all the surface markers and the production of IL-12p40 compared to DCs incubated with polymer films in a chemistry-dependent manner. This suggests that polyanhydrides of various chemistries and device geometries can be tailored to achieve desired levels of immune cell activation for specific applications. The observed biocompatibility and activation of DCs by polyanhydride devices supports their inclusion in vaccine delivery devices as well as in multi-component medical implants.