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Development and applications of a broad-coverage, TR-FRET-based kinase binding assay platform.

Journal of biomolecular screening (2009-07-01)
Connie S Lebakken, Steven M Riddle, Upinder Singh, W Jack Frazee, Hildegard C Eliason, Yi Gao, Laurie J Reichling, Bryan D Marks, Kurt W Vogel

The expansion of kinase assay technologies over the past decade has mirrored the growing interest in kinases as drug targets. As a result, there is no shortage of convenient, fluorescence-based methods available to assay targets that span the kinome. The authors recently reported on the development of a non-activity-based assay to characterize kinase inhibitors that depended on displacement of an Alexa Fluor 647 conjugate of staurosporine (a "tracer") from a particular kinase. Kinase inhibitors were characterized by a change in fluorescence lifetime of the tracer when it was bound to a kinase relative to when it was displaced by an inhibitor. Here, the authors report on improvements to this strategy by reconfiguring the assay in a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) format that simplifies instrumentation requirements and allows for the use of a substantially lower concentration of kinase than was required in the fluorescence-lifetime-based format. The authors use this new assay to demonstrate several aspects of the binding assay format that are advantageous relative to traditional activity-based assays. The TR-FRET binding format facilitates the assay of compounds against low-activity kinases, allows for the characterization of type II kinase inhibitors either using nonactivated kinases or by monitoring compound potency over time, and ensures that the signal being detected is specific to the kinase of interest and not a contaminating kinase.

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8-(6-Aminohexyl)aminoadenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate, ~98%