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Energetics and structure of hydroxynicotinic acids. Crystal structures of 2-, 4-, 6-hydroxynicotinic and 5-chloro-6-hydroxynicotinic acids.

The journal of physical chemistry. B (2009-09-30)
Rui C Santos, Rita M B B M Figueira, M Fátima M Piedade, Hermínio P Diogo, Manuel E Minas da Piedade
ABSTRACT

The relationship between energetics and structure in 2-, 4-, 5-, and 6-hydroxynicotinic and 5-chloro-6-hydroxynicotinic acids (2HNA, 4HNA, 5HNA, 6HNA, and 5Cl6HNA, respectively) was investigated in the solid and gaseous phases by means of a variety of experimental and computational chemistry techniques. The molecular and crystal structures of the 2HNA, 4HNA, 6HNA, and 5Cl6HNA solid forms used in this study were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction at 293 +/- 2 K. The 2HNA, 4HNA, and 5Cl6HNA samples were monoclinic (space groups: P2(1)/n for 2HNA and P2(1)/c for 4HNA and 5Cl6HNA), and that of 6HNA was found to be triclinic (space group: P1). The 2HNA sample investigated corresponds to a new polymorphic form of this compound. The 2HNA, 4HNA, 6HNA, and 5Cl6HNA molecules crystallize as oxo tautomers exhibiting N-H and Cring=O bonds. This is also supported by the observation of bands typical of N-H and Cring=O stretching frequencies in the corresponding FT-IR spectra. The absence of these bands in the spectrum of 5HNA indicates that a hydroxy tautomer with an unprotonated N heteroatom and a Cring-OH bond is likely to be present in this case. Results of theoretical calculations carried out at the G3MP2 and CBS-QB3 levels of theory suggest that in the ideal gas phase, at 298.15 K, 2HNA favors the oxo form, 4HNA prefers the hydroxy form, and no strong dominance of one of the two tautomers exists in the case of 6HNA and 5Cl6HNA. The standard molar enthalpies of formation of 2HNA, 4HNA, 5HNA, 6HNA, and 5Cl6HNA in the crystalline state, at 298.15 K, Delta(f)H(m)(o)(cr), were determined by micro combustion calorimetry. The corresponding enthalpies of sublimation, Delta(sub)H(m)(o), were also derived from vapor pressure versus temperature measurements by the Knudsen effusion method. The obtained Delta(f)H(m)(o)(cr) and Delta(sub)H(m)(o) values led to the enthalpies of formation of 2HNA, 4HNA, 5HNA, 6HNA, and 5Cl6HNA in the gaseous phase. These were discussed together with the corresponding predictions by the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ, B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ, G3MP2, and CBS-QB3 methods on the basis of isodesmic or atomization reactions. The experimental "stability" order (more stable meaning a more negative Delta(f)H(m)(o)(g) value) found was 5Cl6HNA > 2HNA > 6HNA > 4HNA > 5HNA, and it was accurately captured by the CBS-QB3 and G3MP2 methods, which give 5Cl6HNA > 2HNA approximately 6HNA > 4HNA > 5HNA, irrespective of the use of isodesmic or atomization reactions. In contrast, only when well-balanced isodesmic reactions were considered did the DFT results agree with the experimental ones. The picture that emerged from the structural and energetic studies carried out in this work was also discussed in light of that typical of hydroxypyridines, which are generally regarded as the archetype systems for the study of the hydroxy <--> oxo tautomerization in N-heterocyclic compounds.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
6-Hydroxypyridine-3-carboxylic acid, PESTANAL®, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
6-Hydroxypyridine-3-carboxylic acid, 98%