Human infection with fish parasites can result from the ingestion of incompletely cooked or raw fish, giving origin to parasitic diseases such as anisakiasis, caused by parasites of the Anisakidae family. The present study assessed the in vitro larvicidal effect of two monoterpene compounds, geraniol and citronellal, against Contracaecum sp (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Four hundred live larvae of Contracaecum sp obtained from 'traíra' fish (Hoplias malabaricus, Bloch, 1974) were analyzed on 40 Petri dishes (10 larvae each) with the compounds to be tested. The final concentrations tested for each compound were 250, 125, 62.5, and 31.2 microg/mL and the evaluation was carried out at five different times (2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 h). The larvicidal action of geraniol and citronellal was statistically superior (P < 0.005) to the control (1% ethanol) at concentrations of 250 and 31.2 microg/mL (geraniol) and 250, 125, and 62.5 microg/mL (citronellal). However, no larvicidal activity was observed at concentrations of 125 and 62.5 microg/mL for geraniol and 31.2 microg/mL for citronellal. When the larvicidal action of geraniol was compared to that of citronellal, the former was found to be statistically superior (P < 0.05) to the latter at concentrations of 250 and 31.2 microg/mL. On the other hand, citronellal was statistically superior (P < 0.005) to geraniol at concentrations of 125 and 62.5 microg/mL. The larval mortality rate in terms of time (hours) was higher for geraniol with the passing of time at the 250 microg/mL concentration. At this concentration (in 48 h) the best larvicidal effect was observed with 90% lethality. The larvae were considered to be dead using no motility and loss of structural integrity as parameters. The data indicate that natural terpene compounds should be more explored for antihelminthic activity and can be useful for other studies about anisakiasis treatment.