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Metabonomic investigation of liver profiles of nonpolar metabolites obtained from alcohol-dosed rats and mice using high mass accuracy MSn analysis.

Journal of proteome research (2010-10-30)
Neil Loftus, Alan Barnes, Simon Ashton, Filippos Michopoulos, Georgios Theodoridis, Ian Wilson, Cheng Ji, Neil Kaplowitz

Alcoholism is a complex disorder that, in man, appears to be genetically influenced, although the underlying genes and molecular pathways are not completely known. Here, the intragastric alcohol feeding model in rodents was used together with high mass accuracy LC-MS(n) analysis to assess the metabonomic changes in nonpolar metabolite profiles for livers from control and alcohol-treated rats and mice. Ion signals with a peak area variance of less than 30% (based on repeat analysis of a pooled quality control sample analyzed throughout the batch) were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis (using principal components analysis, PCA). PCA revealed robust differences between profiles from control and alcohol-treated animals from both species. The major metabolites seen to differ between control and alcohol-treated animals were identified using high accuracy MS(n) data and verified using external search engines ( http://www.lipidmaps.org ; http://www.hmdb.ca; http://www.genome.jp/kegg/ ) and authentic standards. The main metabolite classes to show major changes in the alcoholic liver-derived samples were fatty acyls, fatty acid ethyl esters, glycerolipids, and phosphatidylethanol homologues. Significant metabolites that were up-regulated by alcohol treatment in both rat and mouse livers included fatty acyls, metabolites such as octadecatrienoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, a number of fatty acid ethyl esters such as ethyl arachidonate, ethyl docosahexaenoic acid, ethyl linoleate, and ethyl oleate and phosphatidylethanol (PEth) homologues (predominantly PEth 18:0/18:2 and PEth 16:0/18:2; PEth homologues are currently considered as potential biomarkers for harmful and prolonged alcohol consumption in man). A number of glycerophospholipids resulted in both up-regulation (m/z 903.7436 [M + H](+) corresponding to a triglyceride) and down-regulation (m/z 667.5296 [M + H](+) corresponding to a diglyceride). Metabolite profiles were broadly similar in both mouse and rat models. However, there were a number of significant differences in the alcohol-treated group particularly in the marked down-regulation of retinol and free cholesterol in the mouse compared to the rat. Unique markers for alcohol treatment included ethyl docosahexaenoic acid. Metabolites were identified with high confidence using predominantly negative ion MS(n) data for the fatty acyl components to match to www.lipidmaps.org MS and MS/MS databases; interpreting positive ion data needed to take into account possible adduct ions which may confound the identification of other lipid classes. The observed changes in lipid profiles were consistent with alcohol-induced liver injury in humans.

Product Number
Product Description

Ethyl oleate, 98%
Ethyl oleate, tested according to Ph. Eur.
Ethyl oleate, natural, ≥85%
Ethyl oleate, technical grade, 70%