We sought to identify metabolic pathways characterizing human heart failure (HF) using ¹NMR based urinary metabolomic analysis in conjunction with multivariate statistics. Patients with systolic HF of ischemic origin (n=15) and healthy controls (n=20) participated in this study. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were excluded. The results showed that the urine of the HF patients had higher levels of metabolites for acetate (p<0.05) and acetone (p<0.01) compared to the healthy controls. In addition, there was a perturbation in methylmalonate metabolism as shown by increased urinary levels of methylmalonic acid (p<0.001) in the HF patients. HF patients also had increased urinary levels of cytosine (p<0.01) and phenylacetylglycine (p<0.01) and decreased 1-methylnicotinamide (p<0.05) compared to healthy controls. TCA cycle metabolites and fatty acid metabolism were modified in the HF patients, indicating altered energy metabolism. Moreover, perturbations of metabolism in nucleotide and methylmalonate were observed.
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