Low-dose aspirin acts by irreversibly acetylating internal cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) on platelets, thereby suppressing platelet aggregation. Because nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) also inhibit COX-1, the antiplatelet effects of aspirin may be suppressed when it is co-administered with NSAIDs. In this study, the influences of ibuprofen, loxoprofen sodium and etodolac on the antiplatelet effects of aspirin were investigated in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Aspirin and/or NSAIDs were administered orally at single or multiple daily doses. Platelet aggregation (ADP and collagen were added as stimuli) and serum thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) concentrations were measured. The maximum inhibitions of aggregation in the aspirin before ibuprofen group were 41.0±7.8% for ADP and 38.7±5.4% for collagen at 6 h after administration; similar values were seen in the aspirin group; however, percent inhibitions in the aspirin before ibuprofen multiple administration group were lower than those in the aspirin group. Thus, the inhibitory effects of daily low-dose aspirin on platelets are competitively inhibited by the prolonged use of multiple daily doses of ibuprofen. In contrast, serum TXB(2) concentrations in all groups were lower than those in the control group (drug-free). This suggests that the relationship between the inhibition of platelet COX-1 and the suppression of platelet aggregation is nonlinear. When aspirin was administered with loxoprofen sodium, similar effects were observed; however, with etodolac, the antiplatelet effects in all groups were equal to those in the aspirin group. Accordingly, if co-administration with NSAIDs is necessary with low-dose aspirin, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, such as etodolac, should be used.
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