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Terpenoids inhibit Candida albicans growth by affecting membrane integrity and arrest of cell cycle.

Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology (2011-05-21)
Gajanan B Zore, Archana D Thakre, Sitaram Jadhav, S Mohan Karuppayil

Anti-Candida potential of six terpenoids were evaluated in this study against various isolates of Candida albicans (n=39) and non-C. albicans (n=9) that are differentially susceptible to fluconazole. All the six terpenoids tested, showed excellent activity and were equally effective against isolates of Candida sps., tested in this study. Linalool and citral were the most effective ones, inhibiting all the isolates at ≤0.064% (v/v). Five among the six terpenoids tested were fungicidal. Time dependent kill curve assay showed that MFCs of linalool and eugenol were highly toxic to C. albicans, killing 99.9% inoculum within seven min of exposure, while that of citronellal, linalyl acetate and citral required 15min, 1h and 2h, respectively. FIC index values (Linalool - 0.140, benzyl benzoate - 0.156, eugenol - 0.265, citral - 0.281 and 0.312 for linalyl acetate and citronellal) and isobologram obtained by checker board assay showed that all the six terpenoids tested exhibit excellent synergistic activity with fluconazole against a fluconazole resistant strain of C. albicans. Terpenoids tested arrested C. albicans cells at different phases of the cell cycle i.e. linalool and LA at G1, citral and citronellal at S phase and benzyl benzoate at G2-M phase and induced apoptosis. Linalool, citral, citronellal and benzyl benzoate caused more than 50% inhibition of germ tube induction at 0.008%, while eugenol and LA required 0.032 and 0.016% (v/v) concentrations, respectively. MICs of all the terpenoids for the C. albicans growth were non toxic to HeLa cells. Terpenoids tested exhibited excellent activity against C. albicans yeast and hyphal form growth at the concentrations that are non toxic to HeLa cells. Terpenoids tested in this study may find use in antifungal chemotherapy, not only as antifungal agents but also as synergistic agents along with conventional drugs like fluconazole.

Product Number
Product Description

Linalyl acetate, ≥97%, FCC, FG
Linalyl acetate, natural, ≥96%, FG
(R)-(+)-Citronellal, technical grade
(±)-Citronellal, ≥95.0% (GC)
3,7-Dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-yl acetate, 97%
(S)-(−)-Citronellal, 96%
(±)-Citronellal, analytical standard
(±)-Citronellal, natural, ≥85%, FCC, FG