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Urinary biomarkers of occupational jet fuel exposure among Air Force personnel.

Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology (2011-11-03)
Kristen W Smith, Susan P Proctor, A L Ozonoff, Michael D McClean
ABSTRACT

There is a potential for widespread occupational exposure to jet fuel among military and civilian personnel. Urinary metabolites of naphthalene have been suggested for use as short-term biomarkers of exposure to jet fuel (jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP8)). In this study, urinary biomarkers of JP8 were evaluated among US Air Force personnel. Personnel (n=24) were divided a priori into high, moderate, and low exposure groups. Pre- and post-shift urine samples were collected from each worker over three workdays and analyzed for metabolites of naphthalene (1- and 2-naphthol). Questionnaires and breathing-zone naphthalene samples were collected from each worker during the same workdays. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the exposure data. Post-shift levels of 1- and 2-naphthol varied significantly by a priori exposure group (levels in high group>moderate group>low group), and breathing-zone naphthalene was a significant predictor of post-shift levels of 1- and 2-naphthol, indicating that for every unit increase in breathing-zone naphthalene, there was an increase in naphthol levels. These results indicate that post-shift levels of urinary 1- and 2-naphthol reflect JP8 exposure during the work-shift and may be useful surrogates of JP8 exposure. Among the high exposed workers, significant job-related predictors of post-shift levels of 1- and 2-naphthol included entering the fuel tank, repairing leaks, direct skin contact with JP8, and not wearing gloves during the work-shift. The job-related predictors of 1- and 2-naphthol emphasize the importance of reducing inhalation and dermal exposure through the use of personal protective equipment while working in an environment with JP8.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
1-Naphthol, ReagentPlus®, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
2-Naphthol, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
2-Naphthol, 98%
Sigma-Aldrich
1-Naphthol, puriss. p.a., reag. Ph. Eur., ≥99% (GC)
Supelco
1-Naphthol, PESTANAL®, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
1-Naphthol, BioXtra, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
2-Naphthol, fluorescence indicator, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
2-Naphthol, BioXtra, ≥99.0% (GC)