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Genotoxicity of citrus wastewater in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and efficiency of heterogeneous photocatalysis by TiO(2).

Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology (2012-01-20)
Marghereth Saverini, Irene Catanzaro, Giulia Sciandrello, Giuseppe Avellone, Sergio Indelicato, Giuseppe Marcì, Leonardo Palmisano
ABSTRACT

The presence of (±)α-pinene, (+)β-pinene, (+)3-carene, and R-(+)limonene terpenes in wastewater of a citrus transformation factory was detected and analyzed, in a previous study, by using Solid Phase Micro-extraction (SPME) followed by GC analyses. Purpose of that research was to compare the genotoxic responses of mixtures of terpenes with the genotoxicity of the individual compounds, and the biological effects of actual wastewater. Genotoxicity was evaluated in the Salmonella reversion assay (Ames test) and in V79 cells by Comet assay. Ames tests indicated that the four single terpenes did not induce an increase of revertants frequency. On the contrary, the mixtures of terpenes caused, in the presence of metabolic activation, a highly significant increase of the revertants in TA100 strain in comparison to the control. The Comet assay showed a significant increase in DNA damage in V79 cells treated for 1h with single or mixed terpenes. Moreover, the actual wastewater was found highly genotoxic in bacterial and mammalian cells. Photocatalytic tests completely photodegraded the pollutants present in aqueous wastewater and the initial high genotoxicity of samples of wastewater collected during the photocatalytic run, was completely lose in 3h of irradiation.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
3-Carene, 90%
Sigma-Aldrich
(1S)-(+)-3-Carene, 99%
Supelco
(+)-3-Carene, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
3-Carene, ≥90%
Supelco
SPME Portable Field Sampler, coating PDMS
Supelco
SPME/HPLC Interface, rheodyne valve version
Supelco
SPME Sampling Stand, for use with 15 mL vials
Supelco
SPME Portable Field Sampler, coating CAR/PDMS
Supelco
SPME Sampling Stand, for use with 4 mL vials
Supelco
SPME Portable Field Sampler, coating PDMS/DVB
Supelco
SPME fiber assortment kit 3
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 75 μm (CAR/PDMS), for use with manual holder, needle size 24 ga
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), needle size 24 ga, for use with manual holder
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly polyacrylate (PA), df 85 μm (PA), for use with manual holder, needle size 24 ga
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 7 μm (PDMS), needle size 24 ga, for use with manual holder
Supelco
SPME Fiber Assembly Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), df 60 μm (PDMS/DVB), for use with autosampler/HPLC, needle size 24 ga, StableFlex fiber
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly, Carbowax-Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Coating, needle size 23 ga, df 60 μm (PEG), metal alloy fiber, for use with manual holder
Supelco
SPME fiber assortment kit 1, for use with manual holder, needle size 24 ga
Supelco
SPME fiber assortment kit 2, for use with manual holder, needle size 24 ga
Supelco
SPME fiber assortment kit 4, for use with manual holder, size 24 ga
Supelco
SPME fiber assortment kit 5, needle size 23 ga, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME LC Tips, C18, tray of 96 ea
Supelco
SPME StableFlex fiber assortment kit, for use with manual holder
Supelco
SPME-OC Fiber Assembly, Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), df 75 μm (Coating thickness includes 65 μm coating + 10 μm OC (overcoating)), needle size 23 ga, pkg of 3 ea, fiber L 1 cm
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 75 μm (CAR/PDMS), needle size 23 ga, for use with manual holder
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), needle size 24 ga, StableFlex, for use with manual holder/autosampler
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly polyacrylate (PA), df 85 μm (PA), for use with autosampler, needle size 24 ga
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 7 μm (PDMS), needle size 24 ga, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME Fiber Assembly Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), df 65 μm (PDMS/DVB), needle size 24 ga, for use with manual holder
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly, Carbowax-Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Coating, needle size 23 ga, df 60 μm (PEG), for use with autosampler