We determined the effect of protodynamic therapy against bladder cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We investigated cis-urocanic acid in rat bladder cancer cell cultures and in an orthotopic rat urothelial carcinoma model to assess its safety and antiproliferative activity. The rat bladder cancer cell line AY-27 was exposed to cis-urocanic acid (BioCis Pharma, Turku, Finland) at pH 6.5 or 7.4 for 2 hours. Cell viability was measured by colorimetric assay at 24 and 48 hours. For in vivo experiments AY-27 cells were instilled into the acid treated bladder of 17 rats. After 4, 7 and 10 days 14 rats were treated intravesically with cis-urocanic acid 6% (weight per volume) or vehicle. Rats were sacrificed on day 12 and the bladders were dissected. Immunohistochemical staining was done to assess apoptosis (caspase-3) and cell proliferation (Ki-67) in vivo. Cis-urocanic acid caused dose dependent, pH dependent inhibition of AY-27 cell proliferation, showing the protodynamic action at concentrations of 0.5% and 1%. At higher cis-urocanic acid doses complete cell death was observed. All tumors detected in animals treated with vehicle were muscle invasive (stage T2 or greater) but only 43% of tumors were muscle invasive in the cis-urocanic acid treated group (p=0.049). There was no difference in the percent of apoptotic or proliferating tumor cells between treatment groups. No signs of toxicity were observed. Cis-urocanic acid showed direct antiproliferative activity against rat bladder cancer cells in vitro and antitumor effects in vivo. It may have therapeutic potential as an intravesical agent for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer.