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Freezing activities of flavonoids in solutions containing different ice nucleators.

Cryobiology (2012-03-13)
Chikako Kuwabara, Donghui Wang, Jun Kasuga, Yukiharu Fukushi, Keita Arakawa, Toshie Koyama, Takaaki Inada, Seizo Fujikawa
ABSTRACT

In this study, we examined the effects on freezing of 26 kinds of flavonoid compounds, which were randomly selected as compounds with structures similar to those of flavonoid compounds existing in deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) in trees, in solutions containing different kinds of ice nucleators, including the ice nucleation bacterium (INB) Erwinia ananas, INB Xanthomonas campestris, silver iodide, phloroglucinol and unidentified airborne impurities in buffered Milli-Q water (BMQW). Cumulative freezing spectra were obtained in each solution by cooling 2 μL droplets at 0.2 °C/min by a droplet freezing assay. Freezing temperature of 50% droplets (FT(50)) was obtained from each spectra in a separate analysis with more than 20 droplets and mean FT(50) were obtained from more than five separate analyses using more than 100 droplets in total in each flavonoid. Supercooling-promoting activities (SCA) or ice nucleation-enhancing activities (INA) of these flavonoids were determined by the difference in FT(50) between control solutions without flavonoids and experimental solutions with flavonoids. In mean values, most of the compounds examined exhibited SCA in solutions containing the INB E. ananas, INB X. campestris, silver iodide, and phloroglucinol although the magnitudes of their activities were different depending on the ice nucleator. In solutions containing the INB E. ananas, 10 compounds exhibited SCAs with significant differences (p<0.05) in the range of 1.4-4.2 °C. In solutions containing silver iodide, 23 compounds exhibited SCAs with significant differences in the range of 2.0-7.1 °C. In solutions containing phloroglucinol, six compounds exhibited SCAs with significant differences in the range of 2.4-3.5 °C. In solutions containing the INB X. campestris, only three compounds exhibited SCAs with significant differences in the range of 0.9-2.3 °C. In solutions containing unidentified airborne impurities (BMQW alone), on the other hand, many compounds exhibited INA rather than SCA. In mean values, only four compounds exhibited SCAs in the range of 2.4-3.2 °C (no compounds with significant difference at p<0.05), whereas 21 compounds exhibited INAs in the range of 0.1-12.3 °C (eight compounds with significant difference). It was also shown by an emulsion freezing assay that most flavonoid glycosides examined did not affect homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures, except for a few compounds that become ice nucleators in BMQW alone. These results suggest that most flavonoid compounds affect freezing temperatures by interaction with unidentified ice nucleators in BMQW as examined by a droplet freezing assay. The results of our previous and present studies indicate that flavonoid compounds have very complex effects to regulate freezing of water.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Silver iodide, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Silver iodide, 99.999% trace metals basis