This study investigated the in vitro release of vancomycin, gentamicin, and lidocaine from novel electrospun sandwich-structured polylactide-polyglycolide (PLGA)/collagen nanofibrous membranes. For the electrospinning of biodegradable membranes, PLGA/collagen and PLGA/vancomycin/gentamicin/lidocaine were separately dissolved in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP). They were then electrospun into sandwich structured membranes, with PLGA/collagen for the surface layers and PLGA/drugs for the core layer. After electrospinning, an elution method and HPLC assay were employed to characterize the in vitro release rates of the pharmaceutics over a 30-day period. The experiment showed that biodegradable nanofibrous membranes released high concentrations of vancomycin and gentamicin (well above the minimum inhibition concentration) for 4 and 3 weeks, respectively, and lidocaine for 2 weeks. A bacterial inhibition test was carried out to determine the relative activity of the released antibiotics. The bioactivity of vancomycin and gentamicin ranged from 30% to 100% and 37% to 100%, respectively. In addition, results indicated that the nanofibrous membranes were functionally active in responses in human fibroblasts. By adopting the electrospinning technique, we will be able to manufacture biodegradable biomimetic nanofibrous extracellular membranes for long-term drug delivery of various pharmaceuticals.