Kinetics of the reductive dissolution of lead(IV) oxide by iodide.

Environmental science & technology (2012-05-01)
Yin Wang, Jiewei Wu, Daniel E Giammar
ABSTRACT

Lead(IV) oxide (PbO(2)) is a corrosion product found in lead service lines used to convey drinking water. The presence of reductants can accelerate PbO(2) dissolution and enhance lead release to drinking water. The dissolution rate rather than the equilibrium solubility of PbO(2) can control the dissolved lead concentrations in water distributed through pipes containing PbO(2). Iodide, a known reductant for PbO(2), was selected as a model reductant for investigating the kinetics and mechanisms of the reductive dissolution of PbO(2). The dissolution rate of plattnerite (β-PbO(2)) was determined as a function of pH, iodide concentration, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration using continuously stirred tank reactors. The dissolution rate of plattnerite increased with decreasing pH and increasing iodide concentrations. The presence of 10 mg C/L DIC accelerated plattnerite dissolution, but further increases in DIC concentration did not affect the dissolution rate. The reductive dissolution of PbO(2) can be interpreted as a coupled process involving chemical reduction of Pb(IV) to Pb(II) at the PbO(2) surface followed by detachment of Pb(II) to solution. The data suggest that chemical reduction is the rate-limiting step for PbO(2) dissolution in the presence of iodide.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Lead(II) oxide, 99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Lead(II) oxide, powder, <10 μm, ReagentPlus®, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Lead(II) oxide, ACS reagent, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Lead oxide, red powder, 1-2 μm, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Lead(II) oxide, puriss. p.a., ≥99.0% (KT), yellow
Sigma-Aldrich
Lead(II,IV) oxide, ≥96%