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Development of a new and environment friendly hollow fiber-supported liquid phase microextraction using vesicular aggregate-based supramolecular solvent.

The Analyst (2012-06-27)
Morteza Moradi, Yadollah Yamini, Fatemeh Rezaei, Elham Tahmasebi, Ali Esrafili
ABSTRACT

Hollow fiber-based liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) using conventional solvents is limited by their relative instability and high volatility. The use of supramolecular solvents as a liquid membrane phase could overcome these inconveniences due to their negligible vapour pressure and high viscosity. In the present study, a novel and highly flexible method was developed based on supramolecular solvents constructed of vesicles of decanoic acid, which were used for the first time as a solvent in HF-LPME. This solvent is produced from the coacervation of decanoic acid aqueous vesicles by the action of tetrabutylammonium (Bu(4)N(+)). In this work, halogenated anilines as model compounds were extracted from water samples into a supramolecular solvent impregnated in the pores and also filled inside the porous polypropylene hollow fiber membrane. The extracted anilines were separated and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The technique requires minimal sample preparation time and toxic organic solvent consumption, and provides a significant advantage over conventional analytical methods. The important parameters influencing the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized utilizing two different optimization methods: one variable at a time and the Box-Behnken design. Under the optimum conditions, the preconcentration factors were in the range of 74 to 203. Linearity of the method was obtained in the range of 1.0-100 μg L(-1) with the correlation coefficients of determination (R(2)) ranging from 0.9901 to 0.9986. The limits of detection for the target anilines were 0.5-1.0 μg L(-1). The relative standard deviations varied from 3.9% to 6.0%. The relative recoveries of the three halogenated anilines from water samples at a spiking level of 20.0 μg L(-1) were in the range of 90.4-107.4%.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrabutylammonium chloride, ≥97.0% (NT)
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrabutylammonium nitrate, 97%
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrabutylammonium fluoride solution, 75 wt. % in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrabutylammonium bisulfate, puriss., ≥99.0% (T)
Supelco
Tetrabutylammonium chloride, suitable for ion pair chromatography, LiChropur, ≥99.0%
Supelco
Tetrabutylammonium bisulfate, suitable for ion pair chromatography, LiChropur, ≥99.0%
Supelco
Tetrabutylammonium bromide, suitable for ion pair chromatography, LiChropur, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrabutylammonium phosphate monobasic, puriss., ≥99.0% (T)
Supelco
Tetrabutylammonium bisulfate solution, suitable for ion pair chromatography, LiChropur, concentrate, ampule
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrabutylammonium bisulfate solution, ~55% in H2O
Supelco
Tetrabutylammonium iodide, suitable for ion pair chromatography, LiChropur, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrabutylammonium iodide, ≥99.0% (AT)
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrabutylammonium bromide solution, 50 wt. % in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrabutylammonium iodide, reagent grade, 98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrabutylammonium fluoride solution, 1.0 M in THF
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium decanoate, ≥98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrabutylammonium bromide, ACS reagent, ≥98.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrabutylammonium azide
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrabutylammonium cyanide, 95%
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrabutylammonium phosphate monobasic solution, 1.0 M in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrabutylammonium cyanide, technical, ≥80%
Sigma-Aldrich
Decanoic acid, ≥98.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrabutylammonium hydroxide solution, 1.0 M in methanol
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrabutylammonium hydroxide solution, 40 wt. % in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrabutylammonium hydrogensulfate, 97%
Sigma-Aldrich
Decanoic acid, natural, ≥98%, FCC, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Decanoic acid, ≥99.5%, FCC, FG
Supelco
Decanoic acid, analytical standard
Supelco
Tetrabutylammonium perchlorate, for electrochemical analysis, ≥99.0%
Supelco
Tetrabutylammonium phosphate monobasic solution, suitable for ion pair chromatography, LiChropur, concentrate, ampule