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Delineation of subsurface hydrocarbon contamination at a former hydrogenation plant using spectral induced polarization imaging.

Journal of contaminant hydrology (2012-07-13)
Adrián Flores Orozco, Andreas Kemna, Christoph Oberdörster, Ludwig Zschornack, Carsten Leven, Peter Dietrich, Holger Weiss
ABSTRACT

Broadband spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements were conducted at a former hydrogenation plant in Zeitz (NE Germany) to investigate the potential of SIP imaging to delineate areas with different BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) concentrations. Conductivity images reveal a poor correlation with the distribution of contaminants; whereas phase images exhibit two main anomalies: low phase shift values (<5 mrad) for locations with high BTEX concentrations, including the occurrence of free-phase product (BTEX concentrations >1.7 g/l), and higher phase values for lower BTEX concentrations. Moreover, the spectral response of the areas with high BTEX concentration and free-phase products reveals a flattened spectrum in the low frequencies (<40 Hz), while areas with lower BTEX concentrations exhibit a response characterized by a frequency peak. The SIP response was modelled using a Debye decomposition to compute images of the median relaxation-time. Consistent with laboratory studies, we observed an increase in the relaxation-time associated with an increase in BTEX concentrations. Measurements were also collected in the time domain (TDIP), revealing imaging results consistent with those obtained for frequency domain (SIP) measurements. Results presented here demonstrate the potential of the SIP imaging method to discriminate source and plume of dissolved contaminants at BTEX contaminated sites.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylbenzene, anhydrous, 99.8%
Supelco
Ethylbenzene, analytical standard
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Ethylbenzene, ReagentPlus®, 99%
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Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 0.1% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), TMS 0.01 %, NMR tube size 5 mm × 8 in.
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Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 10% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D)
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Ethylbenzene solution, certified reference material, 5000 μg/mL in methanol
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Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 1% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D)
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 0.1% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), TMS 0.01 %, NMR tube size 5 mm × 8 in. , ultra-thin wall
Supelco
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 10% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), NMR tube size 5 mm × 8 in. , ultra-thin wall
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 10% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), NMR tube size 10 mm × 8 in.
Supelco
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 0.1% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), NMR tube size 5 mm × 8 in.
Supelco
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 0.1% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), NMR tube size 3 mm × 8 in.
Supelco
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 10% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), NMR tube size 3 mm × 8 in.
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 0.1% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), TMS 0.1 %
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Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 5% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), TMS 1 %, NMR tube size 5 mm × 7 in.
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Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 0.1% in chloroform-d ("100%", 99.96 atom % D)
Supelco
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 5% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), TMS 2 %, NMR tube size 3 mm × 8 in.
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 0.1% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), TMS 0.01 %, NMR tube size 10 mm × 8 in.
Supelco
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 0.1% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), chromium(III) acetylacetonate 0.1 mg/mL, TMS 0.01 %, NMR tube size 5 mm × 8 in.
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 0.1% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), TMS 0.01 %, NMR tube size 8 mm × 8 in.
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 5% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), TMS 2 %, NMR tube size 5 mm × 8 in.
Supelco
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 0.1% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), TMS 0.01 %, NMR tube size 3 mm × 8 in.