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UV filters, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, octocrylene and ethylhexyl dimethyl PABA from untreated wastewater in sediment from eastern Mediterranean river transition and coastal zones.

Marine pollution bulletin (2012-09-18)
Helmieh Amine, Elena Gomez, Jalal Halwani, Claude Casellas, Hélène Fenet
ABSTRACT

UVF may occur in the aquatic environment through two principal sources: direct inputs from recreational activities and indirect wastewater- and river-borne inputs. The aim of this study was to obtain a first overview of levels of three UVF (EHMC, OC and OD-PABA) in coastal areas subjected to river inputs, untreated wastewater discharges and dumpsite leachates. We selected three eastern Mediterranean rivers that have been impacted for decades by untreated wastewater release and collected sediment in the coastal zone during the hot and humid seasons. Western Mediterranean sites receiving treated wastewaters were analyzed for comparison. The results gave an overview of sediment contamination under these two contrasted situations representative of Mediterranean coastal areas without bathing activities. The analysis of the three UVF revealed the ubiquity and high point source contamination by EHMC and OC in transition and coastal zones, with levels as high as 128 ng g(-1)d.w. OD-PABA was also frequently detected, but at lower concentrations (<LOD-17 ng g(-1)d.w.). A temporal trend was observed, with a higher sediment concentration in the dry period (August and October). Based on these results, we conclude that there is background contamination from river input that could be exacerbated by the direct contribution in coastal bathing zones.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
4-Aminobenzoic acid, ReagentPlus®, ≥99%
Supelco
Octocrylene, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
4-Aminobenzoic acid, ReagentPlus®, 99%
Supelco
4-Aminobenzoic acid, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
2-Ethylhexyl 2-cyano-3,3-diphenylacrylate, 97%
Supelco
Octocrylene, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
4-Aminobenzoic acid, purified by sublimation, ≥99%