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Joint action and lethal levels of toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene on midge (Chironomus plumosus) larvae.

Environmental science and pollution research international (2013-01-29)
Xuefeng Li, Qixing Zhou, Yi Luo, Guang Yang, Tong Zhou
ABSTRACT

Aquatic ecosystems are vulnerable to the exposure with petrochemicals such as toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (o-, m-, and p-xylene) (TEX) and their adverse effects. Considering the widespread use, occurrence, and high toxicity of TEX, the aim of this work was to investigate the differential toxicity of TEX against midge (Chironomus plumosus) larvae and reveal the joint action of binary and ternary mixtures of TEX using the predictive concentration addition model. More importantly, this research can afford the basic toxicity data and scientific reference for the establishment of water quality criteria or benchmark, water pollution control, and aquatic risk assessment. Single and joint toxic effects of TEX on C. plumosus larvae were investigated using a semi-static bioassay, and the type of joint effects of TEX was ascertained. In the single toxicant experiments, the toxicity of the three pollutants could be sequenced as ethylbenzene > xylene > toluene. Specifically, LC(50s) of T, E, and X after a 48-h exposure were 64.9, 37.8, and 42.0 mg/L, respectively. In the binary mixture experiments, the interaction between toluene and ethylbenzene, ethylbenzene and xylene, and toluene and xylene was largely in conformity with partial additive or additive effect as determined by isobologram representation and toxic unit models. In the ternary mixture experiments, the interaction was basically dependent on the use of additive index and mixture toxicity index methods. However, the antagonistic and synergistic actions were not significant. Thus, the tertiary mixture interaction could be regarded as additive action. The concentration addition model could successfully predict the joint action of TEX mixtures on C. plumosus larvae. Particularly, the additive action of TEX on C. plumosus larvae can be further recommended to evaluate water quality criteria of TEX.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Toluene, anhydrous, 99.8%
Sigma-Aldrich
Toluene, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Toluene, suitable for HPLC, 99.9%
Sigma-Aldrich
Toluene, HPLC Plus, for HPLC, GC, and residue analysis, ≥99.9%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylbenzene, anhydrous, 99.8%
Supelco
Toluene, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Toluene, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., ≥99.7% (GC)
Supelco
Ethylbenzene, analytical standard
Supelco
Toluene, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Toluene, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Toluene, Laboratory Reagent, ≥99.3%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylbenzene, ReagentPlus®, 99%
Supelco
Toluene solution, certified reference material, 5000 μg/mL in methanol
Supelco
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 0.1% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), TMS 0.01 %, NMR tube size 5 mm × 8 in.
Sigma-Aldrich
Toluene, suitable for HPLC, ≥99.9%
Supelco
Ethylbenzene solution, certified reference material, 5000 μg/mL in methanol
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 10% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D)
Sigma-Aldrich
Toluene, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 1% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D)
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 0.1% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), TMS 0.01 %, NMR tube size 5 mm × 8 in. , ultra-thin wall
Supelco
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 10% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), NMR tube size 5 mm × 8 in. , ultra-thin wall
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 10% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), NMR tube size 10 mm × 8 in.
Supelco
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 0.1% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), NMR tube size 5 mm × 8 in.
Supelco
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 0.1% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), NMR tube size 3 mm × 8 in.
Supelco
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 10% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), NMR tube size 3 mm × 8 in.
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 0.1% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), TMS 0.1 %
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 5% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), TMS 1 %, NMR tube size 5 mm × 7 in.
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 0.1% in chloroform-d ("100%", 99.96 atom % D)
Supelco
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 5% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), TMS 2 %, NMR tube size 3 mm × 8 in.
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylbenzene solution, NMR reference standard, 0.1% in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), TMS 0.01 %, NMR tube size 10 mm × 8 in.