Regulation of ion channels by pyridine nucleotides.

Circulation research (2013-02-16)
Peter J Kilfoil, Srinivas M Tipparaju, Oleg A Barski, Aruni Bhatnagar

Recent research suggests that in addition to their role as soluble electron carriers, pyridine nucleotides [NAD(P)(H)] also regulate ion transport mechanisms. This mode of regulation seems to have been conserved through evolution. Several bacterial ion-transporting proteins or their auxiliary subunits possess nucleotide-binding domains. In eukaryotes, the Kv1 and Kv4 channels interact with pyridine nucleotide-binding β-subunits that belong to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. Binding of NADP(+) to Kvβ removes N-type inactivation of Kv currents, whereas NADPH stabilizes channel inactivation. Pyridine nucleotides also regulate Slo channels by interacting with their cytosolic regulator of potassium conductance domains that show high sequence homology to the bacterial TrkA family of K(+) transporters. These nucleotides also have been shown to modify the activity of the plasma membrane K(ATP) channels, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, the transient receptor potential M2 channel, and the intracellular ryanodine receptor calcium release channels. In addition, pyridine nucleotides also modulate the voltage-gated sodium channel by supporting the activity of its ancillary subunit-the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-like protein. Moreover, the NADP(+) metabolite, NAADP(+), regulates intracellular calcium homeostasis via the 2-pore channel, ryanodine receptor, or transient receptor potential M2 channels. Regulation of ion channels by pyridine nucleotides may be required for integrating cell ion transport to energetics and for sensing oxygen levels or metabolite availability. This mechanism also may be an important component of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, memory, and circadian rhythms, and disruption of this regulatory axis may be linked to dysregulation of calcium homeostasis and cardiac arrhythmias.

Product Number
Product Description

Cyclic adenosine diphosphate-ribose, ≥90% (HPLC), lyophilized powder
Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate sodium salt, ≥92.5%