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Screening of transition and post-transition metals to incorporate into copper oxide and copper bismuth oxide for photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution.

Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP (2013-02-20)
Sean P Berglund, Heung Chan Lee, Paul D Núñez, Allen J Bard, C Buddie Mullins
ABSTRACT

A new dispenser and scanner system is used to create and screen Bi-M-Cu oxide arrays for cathodic photoactivity, where M represents 1 of 22 different transition and post-transition metals. Over 3000 unique Bi : M : Cu atomic ratios are screened. Of the 22 metals tested, 10 show a M-Cu oxide with higher photoactivity than CuO and 10 show a Bi-M-Cu oxide with higher photoactivity than CuBi2O4. Cd, Zn, Sn, and Co produce the most photoactive M-Cu oxides, all showing a 200-300% improvement in photocurrent over CuO. Ag, Cd, and Zn produce the highest photoactivity Bi-M-Cu oxides with a 200-400% improvement over CuBi2O4. Most notable is a Bi-Ag-Cu oxide (Bi : Ag : Cu atomic ratio of 22 : 3 : 11) which shows 4 times higher photocurrent than CuBi2O4. This material is capable of evolving hydrogen under illumination in neutral electrolyte solutions at 0.6 V vs. RHE when Pt is added to the surface as an electrocatalyst.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Copper(II) oxide, nanopowder, <50 nm particle size (TEM)
Sigma-Aldrich
Bismuth(III) oxide, ReagentPlus®, powder, 10 μm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
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Sigma-Aldrich
Bismuth(III) oxide, powder, 99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Copper(II) oxide, powder, <10 μm, 98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Copper(II) oxide, powder, 99.99% trace metals basis
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Bismuth, granular, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
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Bismuth(III) oxide, nanopowder, 90-210 nm particle size, 99.8% trace metals basis
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Copper(II) oxide on alumina, 14-30 mesh, extent of labeling: 13 wt. % loading
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Bismuth(III) oxide, purum, ≥98.0% (KT)
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Sigma-Aldrich
Bismuth, beads, 1-5 mm, 99.999% trace metals basis