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Calcium carbonate obstructive urolithiasis in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians (2013-03-20)
Dana M Lindemann, Kathryn C Gamble, Sarah Corner
ABSTRACT

A 6-yr-old male red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) presented for a history of inappetance, abnormal behavior, and unconfirmed elimination for 6 hr prior to presentation. Based on abdominal ultrasound, abdominocentesis, and cystocentesis, a presumptive diagnosis of urinary tract obstruction with uroabdomen and hydronephrosis was reached. Abdominal radiographs did not assist in reaching an antemortem diagnosis. Postmortem examination confirmed a urinary bladder rupture secondary to urethral obstruction by a single urethrolith. Bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter were identified and determined to be a result of bilateral ureteroliths. Urolith analysis revealed a composition of 100% calcium carbonate. A dietary analysis was performed, implicating an increased Ca:P ratio from a food preparation miscommunication as a contributing factor. Appropriate husbandry changes were made, and mob surveillance procedures were performed, which resolved the urolithiasis risk for the remaining five animals.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, ACS reagent, ≥99.0%, powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, ACS reagent, chelometric standard, 99.95-100.05% dry basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, ReagentPlus®
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, powder, ≤50 μm particle size, 98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, BioXtra, ≥99.0%
Supelco
Calcium carbonate, certified reference material for titrimetry, certified by BAM, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, BioUltra, precipitated, ≥99.0% (KT)
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, FCC, E170, precipitated, 98.5-100.5% (based on anhydrous substance)
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, ≥99.995% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, 99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, tested according to Ph. Eur.
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, BioReagent, suitable for insect cell culture, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, anhydrous, free-flowing, Redi-Dri, ReagentPlus®, ≥99%