MilliporeSigma

Enzymatic transformation of nonfood biomass to starch.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2013-04-17)
Chun You, Hongge Chen, Suwan Myung, Noppadon Sathitsuksanoh, Hui Ma, Xiao-Zhou Zhang, Jianyong Li, Y-H Percival Zhang
ABSTRACT

The global demand for food could double in another 40 y owing to growth in the population and food consumption per capita. To meet the world's future food and sustainability needs for biofuels and renewable materials, the production of starch-rich cereals and cellulose-rich bioenergy plants must grow substantially while minimizing agriculture's environmental footprint and conserving biodiversity. Here we demonstrate one-pot enzymatic conversion of pretreated biomass to starch through a nonnatural synthetic enzymatic pathway composed of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolyase, cellobiose phosphorylase, and alpha-glucan phosphorylase originating from bacterial, fungal, and plant sources. A special polypeptide cap in potato alpha-glucan phosphorylase was essential to push a partially hydrolyzed intermediate of cellulose forward to the synthesis of amylose. Up to 30% of the anhydroglucose units in cellulose were converted to starch; the remaining cellulose was hydrolyzed to glucose suitable for ethanol production by yeast in the same bioreactor. Next-generation biorefineries based on simultaneous enzymatic biotransformation and microbial fermentation could address the food, biofuels, and environment trilemma.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Cellulose, microcrystalline, powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Cellulose, colloidal, microcrystalline
Sigma-Aldrich
Cellulose, microcrystalline, powder, 20 μm
Sigma-Aldrich
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Supelco
Starch from corn, analytical standard, analytical standard for Starch Assay Kits SA-20 and STA-20
Supelco
Starch from corn, for use with Total Dietary Fiber Control Kit, TDF-C10
Sigma-Aldrich
Starch from corn, Unmodified waxy corn starch of essentially pure amylopectin; contains only trace amounts of amylose.
Sigma-Aldrich
Starch from corn, practical grade
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Starch from corn
Sigma-Aldrich
Starch from rice
Supelco
Cellulose, DS-0, powder, suitable for thin layer chromatography (TLC)
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Avicel® PH-101, tested according to Ph. Eur.
Supelco
Cellulose, acid washed, from spruce, for column chromatography
Sigma-Aldrich
Starch, from potato, acc. to Zulkowsky (starch, treated with glycerol at 190°C)
Supelco
Cellulose, acid washed, powder, for column chromatography
Sigma-Aldrich
Starch, from potato, tested according to Ph. Eur.
Supelco
Cellulose, powder, for column chromatography
Supelco
Cellulose, DFS-0, microcrystalline, suitable for thin layer chromatography (TLC)
Supelco
Avicel® PH-101, ~50 μm particle size
Sigma-Aldrich
Starch, puriss. p.a., from potato, reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., soluble
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Amylose from potato, used as amylase substrate
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Starch from potato, Powder
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Starch from potato, Soluble
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Starch from potato, suitable for electrophoresis
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N,N′-Diacetylchitobiose, ≥96% (HPLC)
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Starch from wheat, Unmodified
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α-Cellulose, BioReagent, suitable for insect cell culture
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α-Cellulose, powder
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Sigmacell Cellulose, Type 20, 20 μm
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Sigmacell Cellulose, Type 50, 50 μm