Fifty-seven outpatients received either heliotropin (a vanillalike scent) with humidified air (n = 20) or humidified air alone (n = 37) via a nasal cannula during magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnostic workup for cancer. Delivery of heliotropin and air was determined by a computer-controlled schedule. Fragrance administration resulted in a statistically significant reduction in average overall patient-rated anxiety (on a visual analog scale) during imaging in patients who found the fragrance moderately to extremely pleasant. Administration of fragrance was associated with 63% less anxiety than administration of humidified air alone. Physiologic measures (pulse and heart rate) did not show a statistically significant effect with fragrance administration.