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Grapefruit juice, lyophilized grapefruit juice, and powdered whole grapefruit inhibit cytochrome P450-mediated triazolam hydroxylation by beagle dog liver microsomes.

Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics (2010-05-07)
M J Hanley, R Cerundolo, N Radwanski, M H Court
ABSTRACT

Coadministration of grapefruit juice (GFJ) has been proposed to enhance the systemic availability and decrease the required dose of drugs such as cyclosporine that are extensively metabolized in the intestine and liver. Although GFJ inhibits human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A, effects on dog CYP have not yet been reported. Consequently, we determined whether GFJ inhibits triazolam hydroxylation by Beagle dog liver microsomes (DLM) using human liver microsomes (HLM) as positive control. Results were compared with the effects of lyophilized GFJ and commercially-available powdered grapefruit capsules, which may be more convenient dosage forms. GFJ inhibited alpha-hydroxytriazolam formation in both DLM and HLM with similar IC(50) (inhibitor concentration producing a 50% decrease in reaction velocity) values of 0.56% and 0.52% (v/v), respectively. Lyophilized GFJ and powdered grapefruit also inhibited DLM alpha-hydroxytriazolam formation with IC(50) values of 0.76 and 1.2 mg/mL, respectively. Consistent with mechanism-based enzyme inhibition, preincubation of DLM with any of the grapefruit products for 20 min resulted in significant enhancement of inhibition of triazolam alpha-hydroxylation by 8-20%. The results indicate that 16 g of lyophilized GFJ or 23 g of powdered grapefruit would be equivalent to dosing 100 mL of GFJ. In vivo pharmacokinetic interaction studies are needed to confirm these in vitro findings.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
6´,-7´-Dihydroxybergamottin