The ability of cattle and deer liver to catalyse xenobiotic conjugation reactions was investigated and compared with that of the rat. Marked differences in the activity of these enzymes were noted between the domestic animals and rats. Hepatic microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity in cattle and deer, determined using benzo[a]pyrene 4,5-oxide as substrate, was nearly twice that of the rat. In contrast, glutathione S-transferase activity in hepatic cytosol, determined with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as substrate, was significantly lower in the cattle and deer. When 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene served as the accepting substrate, no activity was detectable in the cattle and deer. Similarly, glutathione reductase activity and total glutathione levels were markedly lower in the cattle and deer compared with the rat. Cytosolic sulfotransferase activity, monitored using 2-naphthol as substrate, was higher in cattle compared with the rat. Finally, microsomal UDP-glucuronosyl transferase activity, determined using 1-napththol as substrate, did not differ significantly among the three species.