Bradykinin and muscarine induce Ca(2+)-dependent oscillations of membrane potential in rat glioma cells indicating a rhythmic Ca2+ release from internal stores: thapsigargin and 2,5-di(tert-butyl)-1, 4-benzohydroquinone deplete InsP3-sensitive Ca2+ stores in glioma and in neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cells.
Continuous superfusion of rat glioma cells with medium containing bradykinin (from 0.2 nM) induced a transient hyperpolarization followed by regular hyperpolarizing oscillations of the membrane potential. Similar repetitive hyperpolarizing oscillations were caused by extracellularly applied bradykinin or muscarine or by intracellularly injected GTP-gamma-S. The frequency of the oscillations was 1 per minute at bradykinin concentrations ranging from 0.2 nM to 2 microM, but the amplitude and duration increased with rising peptide concentration. The muscarine-induced oscillations were blocked by atropine. In the presence of extracellular Ca2+, the substances thapsigargin, 2,5-di(tert-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone (tBuBHQ), and ionomycin reversibly suppressed the bradykinin-induced oscillations. Thapsigargin and tBuBHA, which are known to block the Ca2+ ATPase of endoplasmic reticulum, caused a transient rise in cytosolic Ca2+ activity, monitored with Fura-2, in suspensions of rat glioma cells or of mouse neuroblastoma-rat glioma hybrid cells. After a transient Ca2+ rise caused by thapsigargin, tBuBHQ, or ionomycin, the Ca2+ response to bradykinin which is known to be due to release of Ca2+ from internal stores was suppressed. This indicates that thapsigargin and tBuBHQ deplete internal Ca2+ stores as already seen previously for ionomycin. Thus, the inhibition of the membrane potential oscillations by thapsigargin, tBuBHQ, and ionomycin indicates that the oscillations are associated with activation of InsP3-sensitive Ca2+ stores. In some cells composite oscillation patterns which consisted of two independent oscillations with different amplitudes that overlapped additively were seen. We discuss that this pattern and the concentration dependency of the oscillations could be due to "quantal" Ca2+ release from stores with different inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate sensitivities. Subsidence of the oscillations after omission of extracellular Ca2+ seems to be due to a lack of replenishment of the intracellular stores with Ca2+, which comes from the extracellular compartment.
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