Seven vegetable oils consumed by humans were tested for genotoxic activity in the Drosophila somatic mutation and recombination test. The oils included five seed oils (sesame, sunflower, wheat germ, flax, and soy oil) and both first-class extra-virgin and low-grade (refined) olive oil. Larvae of the standard (STD) and highly bioactive (NORR) crosses of Drosophila melanogaster were fed medium containing 6% and 12% of each of the oils. Flax oil produced the strongest response, while sesame, wheat germ, and soy oil showed some genotoxic activity. Sunflower and the low-grade olive oil gave inconclusive results, and extra-virgin olive oil was clearly nongenotoxic. It is argued that the genotoxicity is probably due to the fatty acid composition of the oils, which after peroxidation can form specific DNA-adducts.