Optimization of metam sodium application by rotary spading injection.

Communications in agricultural and applied biological sciences (2008-04-11)
W T Runia, L P G Molendijk
ABSTRACT

In The Netherlands the only chemical alternative for methyl bromide permitted is an application of metam-sodium (MS) with the active ingredient methyl isothiocyanate (MIT). After introduction of a new application method with 'rotary spading injection' legislation restricted the application of MS in 1993 to once in four years and since 2001 once in five years. Efficacy after injection of metam sodium at 10 cm depth and rotary spading a 25 cm soil layer was much better than with shank injection at 19 cm depth with a poor efficacy in the top soil layer. Legislation for arable crops allows a dosage of 300 l Monam (510 g MS/l) per ha. For vegetables, fruits, bulbs and weeds dosages permitted are 600 to 750 l Monam per ha. For an optimal disinfestation result the combination of required dosage and injection depth and rotovation depth had to be established. In a field experiment two dosages Monam were tested for efficacy against Meloidogyne fallax with rotary spading injection at varying injection depths. 300 l Monam per ha was compared with 600 l Monam per ha, both applied at 14 cm injection depth and distributed over a 28 cm soil layer. Another treatment was the application of 600 l Monam per ha, injected at 20 cm depth and rotovated through 40 cm of soil. A carrot crop was sown three weeks after disinfestation and quantity and quality of carrot yield was assessed. Three weeks after application Meloidogyne fallax population was reduced in the furrow with 99% and at 30-50 cm depth with 96% by both applications of 600 l Monam. Efficacy of 300 l Monam was significantly less than 600 l. Nematode population levels after carrot crop stayed lower in the furrow after 600 l in comparison with 300 l Monam. Gross carrot yield was significantly higher after 600 l than after 300 l Monam application at 14 cm depth. Although on this heavy infested field it was not possible to grow carrots without symptoms, after 600 l Monam the percentage of carrots without root-knot symptoms (net yield) was statistically higher than after 300 l Monam.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
Metam-sodium hydrate, PESTANAL®, analytical standard