Several studies have suggested combination therapy with testosterone supplementation in patients not responding to PDE5 inhibitors. Considering the pathophysiological basis for testosterone supplementation, the present study aims to identify whether combination therapy allows persistence of treatment effect after testosterone discontinuation. Furthermore, we evaluated whether the degree of testosterone depletion affects treatment outcome from combination therapy. Hypogonadal patients (<350 ng dl(-1)) with erectile dysfunction who previously did not respond to PDE5 inhibitors were treated with testosterone enanthate injections and daily tadalafil. Patients were stratified into two groups depending on the level of testosterone deficiency, with 250 ng dl(-1) as a reference point. Following testosterone supplementation (12 weeks) and combination therapy (12 weeks), patients with severe testosterone deficiency showed higher IIEF (International Index of Erectile Function) erectile function (EF) domain score (16.47±4.019 vs 12.36±4.051, P=0.001) and more patients responding satisfactorily to treatment by general assessment (57.9 vs 16.0%, P=0.009), despite reaching similar levels of serum total testosterone (602±169 ng dl(-1) vs 698±165 ng dl(-1), P=0.057). Testosterone supplementation was then discontinued and patients were maintained only on daily tadalafil (12 weeks). The severe depletion group maintained higher EF domain scores than baseline (13.06±3.38 vs 7.20±2.24, P=0.0004), despite testosterone levels returning to baseline. The results suggest that combination therapy was more beneficial to patients with severe testosterone depletion, possibly by improving underlying pathophysiology.