The seasonal changes in plasma levels of the androgens 11-ketotestosterone (OT), testosterone (T), 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone (OHT), 11-ketoandrostenedione (OA), and 11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione (OHA) were measured in the male three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L). OT was the dominant plasma androgen in the breeding season in summer and was the only androgen that peaked during this period. The levels of OT correlated closely with the development of male secondary sexual characters and reproductive behavior. T and OHT were low in all seasons, whereas OHA and OA displayed the highest levels in early winter. During the postbreeding period, the time of active spermatogenesis, all measured steroids were low. Castration resulted in an almost complete loss of plasma OT and reduced T, whereas OHT, OHA, and OA were not reliably influenced. Androstenedione implants in castrated fish increased plasma T and OA implants increased plasma OT, suggesting a nontesticular site of conversion.