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Occurrence and fate of PPCPs and correlations with water quality parameters in urban riverine waters of the Pearl River Delta, South China.

Environmental science and pollution research international (2013-04-24)
Xin Yang, Feng Chen, Fangang Meng, Yuanyu Xie, Hui Chen, Kyana Young, Wangxing Luo, Tingjin Ye, Wenjie Fu
ABSTRACT

The occurrence and fate of eight PPCPs was studied in river waters from upstream to downstream of the three rivers in the Pearl River Delta, China. The correlations of PPCP levels and water quality parameters were also investigated. The analytes of the highest concentrations were caffeine, acetaminophen, and ciprofloxacin. Carbamazepine and erythromycin-H2O were detected at the lowest concentrations. The highest concentrations of PPCPs were found in the Shijing River, with 865 ng/L caffeine, 339 ng/L acetaminophen, and 304 ng/L ciprofloxacin. In general, the levels of PPCPs in the Zhujiang River were higher at sites where the metropolitan city Guangzhou is located and decreased from the epicenter along the river. Low levels of PPCPs were generally found in the Beijiang River. Positive correlations were found between PPCP levels, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, and cumulative fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) volume. Among the four PPCPs evaluated (caffeine, acetaminophen, ciprofloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole), caffeine had the best correlations with the correlation coefficients ranging from 0.62 to 0.98. The prediction of PPCP concentrations at specified locations can be substantially simplified.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
Caffeine Melting Point Standard, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Supelco
Caffeine, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
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Caffeine, meets USP testing specifications, anhydrous
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Caffeine, powder, ReagentPlus®
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Mettler-Toledo Calibration substance ME 18872, Caffeine, analytical standard, for the calibration of the thermosystem 900, traceable to primary standards (LGC)
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Ciprofloxacin, ≥98% (HPLC)
Supelco
DEET, PESTANAL®, analytical standard
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Caffeine, anhydrous, tested according to Ph. Eur.
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Caffeine, Sigma Reference Standard, vial of 250 mg
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Caffeine, BioXtra
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Caffeine, anhydrous, 99%, FCC, FG
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Ciprofloxacin, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
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Caffeine, certified reference material, TraceCERT®
Caffeine, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
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Carbamazepine solution, 1.0 mg/mL in methanol, ampule of 1 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
Trimethoprim for system suitability, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride for peak identification, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Ciprofloxacin, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
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Trimethoprim, ≥98% (HPLC)
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Carbamazepine, meets USP testing specifications
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Erythromycin, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
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Caffeine solution, analytical standard, 1.0 mg/mL in methanol
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Erythromycin, meets USP testing specifications
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Erythromycin, potency: ≥850 μg per mg
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Trimethoprim, crystallized, ≥99.0% (HPLC)
Supelco
Trimethoprim, VETRANAL®, analytical standard
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Carbamazepine, powder
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Erythromycin, tested according to Ph. Eur.
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Erythromycin standard solution, 1 mg/mL in H2O