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Neural tube defects: recent advances, unsolved questions, and controversies.

The Lancet. Neurology (2013-06-25)
Andrew J Copp, Philip Stanier, Nicholas D E Greene
ABSTRACT

Neural tube defects are severe congenital malformations affecting around one in every 1000 pregnancies. An innovation in clinical management has come from the finding that closure of open spina bifida lesions in utero can diminish neurological dysfunction in children. Primary prevention with folic acid has been enhanced through introduction of mandatory food fortification in some countries, although not yet in the UK. Genetic predisposition accounts for most of the risk of neural tube defects, and genes that regulate folate one-carbon metabolism and planar cell polarity have been strongly implicated. The sequence of human neural tube closure events remains controversial, but studies of mouse models of neural tube defects show that anencephaly, open spina bifida, and craniorachischisis result from failure of primary neurulation, whereas skin-covered spinal dysraphism results from defective secondary neurulation. Other malformations, such as encephalocele, are likely to be postneurulation disorders.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Folic acid, ≥97%
Sigma-Aldrich
Folic acid, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, suitable for plant cell culture, ≥97%
Supelco
Folic acid, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Folic acid, meets USP testing specifications
Folic acid, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard