Alcohol and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

SADJ : journal of the South African Dental Association = tydskrif van die Suid-Afrikaanse Tandheelkundige Vereniging (2013-08-27)
L Feller, R Chandran, R A G Khammissa, R Meyerov, J Lemmer
ABSTRACT

Alcohol is a risk factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma. It enhances the permeability of the oral epithelium, acts as a solvent for tobacco carcinogens, induces basal-cell proliferation, and generates free radicals and acetaldehyde, which have the capacity to cause DNA damage. Alcohol-associated malnutrition and immune suppression may further promote carcinogenesis. However, acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, is the critical agent by which prolonged and excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages increases the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Alcohol also acts synergistically with the products of tobacco combustion in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 200 proof, anhydrous, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 200 proof, for molecular biology
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 190 proof, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 190 proof, ACS spectrophotometric grade, 95.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Reagent Alcohol, anhydrous, ≤0.003% water
Sigma-Aldrich
Reagent Alcohol, anhydrous, ≤0.005% water
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethanol, anhydrous, denatured
Sigma-Aldrich
Reagent Alcohol, reagent grade
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, denatured, reagent grade
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 200 proof, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetaldehyde, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 200 proof, HPLC/spectrophotometric grade
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetaldehyde, puriss. p.a., anhydrous, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetaldehyde, ReagentPlus®, ≥99.0% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 200 proof, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 190 proof, for molecular biology
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethanol, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, prima fine spirit, without additive, F15 o1, ~96%
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetaldehyde, natural, FG
Supelco
Dehydrated Alcohol, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Supelco
Acetaldehyde, PESTANAL®, analytical standard
Supelco
Ethanol solution, certified reference material, 2000 μg/mL in methanol
Supelco
Ethanol-100 (10 ampules/kit), 100 mg/dL in H2O, ampule of 10 × 1.2 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
Supelco
Ethanol-300, 300 mg/dL in H2O, ampule of 10 × 1.2 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
Supelco
Ethanol-10, 10 mg/dL in H2O, pack of 10 × 1.2 mL ampules, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
Sigma-Aldrich
Reagent Alcohol, suitable for HPLC
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetaldehyde solution, 40 wt. % in H2O
Supelco
Ethanol-80, 80 mg/dL in H2O, ampule of 10 × 1.2 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
Supelco
Ethanol standards 10% (v/v), 10 % (v/v) in H2O, analytical standard
Supelco
Ethanol-200 (10 ampules/kit), 200 mg/dL in H2O, ampule of 10 × 1.2 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
Supelco
Ethanol-50, 50 mg/dL in H2O, ampule of 10 × 1.2 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®