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Amidation of bioactive peptides: the structure of the lyase domain of the amidating enzyme.

Structure (London, England : 1993) (2009-07-17)
Eduardo E Chufán, Mithu De, Betty A Eipper, Richard E Mains, L Mario Amzel
ABSTRACT

Many neuropeptides and peptide hormones require amidation of their carboxy terminal for full biological activity. The enzyme peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.2.5) catalyzes the second and last step of this reaction, N-dealkylation of the peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine to generate the alpha-amidated peptide and glyoxylate. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of the PAL catalytic core (PALcc) alone and in complex with the nonpeptidic substrate alpha-hydroxyhippuric acid. The structures show that PAL folds as a six-bladed beta-propeller. The active site is formed by a Zn(II) ion coordinated by three histidine residues; the substrate binds to this site with its alpha-hydroxyl group coordinated to the Zn(II) ion. The structures also reveal a tyrosine residue (Tyr(654)) at the active site as the catalytic base for hydroxyl deprotonation, an unusual role for tyrosine. A reaction mechanism is proposed based on this structural data and validated by biochemical analysis of site-directed PALcc mutants.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
α-Hydroxyhippuric acid, 98%

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