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Quantification and pharmacokinetics of blood-brain barrier disruption in humans.

Journal of neurosurgery (1996-12-01)
B Zünkeler, R E Carson, J Olson, R G Blasberg, H DeVroom, R J Lutz, S C Saris, D C Wright, W Kammerer, N J Patronas, R L Dedrick, P Herscovitch, E H Oldfield

Hyperosmolar blood-brain barrier disruption (HBBBD), produced by infusion of mannitol into the cerebral arteries, has been used in the treatment of brain tumors to increase drug delivery to tumor and adjacent brain. However, the efficacy of HBBBD in brain tumor therapy has been controversial. The goal of this study was to measure changes in vascular permeability after HBBBD in patients with malignant brain tumors. The permeability (K1) of tumor and normal brain blood vessels was measured using rubidium-82 and positron emission tomography before and repeatedly at 8- to 15-minute intervals after HBBBD. Eighteen studies were performed in 13 patients, eight with glioblastoma multiforme and five with anaplastic astrocytoma. The HBBBD increased K1 in all patients. Baseline K1 values were 2.1 +/- 1.4 and 34.1 +/- 22.1 microl/minute/ml (+/- standard deviation) for brain and tumor, respectively. The peak absolute increases in K1 following HBBBD were 20.8 +/- 11.7 and 19.7 +/- 10.7 microl/minute/ml for brain and tumor, corresponding to percentage increases of approximately 1000% in brain and approximately 60% in tumor. The halftimes for return of K1 to near baseline for brain and tumor were 8.1 +/- 3.8 and 4.2 +/- 1.2 minutes, respectively. Simulations of the effects of HBBBD made using a very simple model with intraarterial methotrexate, which is exemplary of drugs with low permeability, indicate that 1) total exposure of the brain and tumor to methotrexate, as measured by the methotrexate concentration-time integral (or area under the curve), would increase with decreasing infusion duration and would be enhanced by 130% to 200% and by 7% to 16%, respectively, compared to intraarterial infusion of methotrexate alone; and 2) exposure time at concentrations above 1 microM, the minimal concentration required for the effects of methotrexate, would not be enhanced in tumor and would be enhanced by only 10% in brain. Hyperosmolar blood-brain barrier disruption transiently increases delivery of water-soluble compounds to normal brain and brain tumors. Most of the enhancement of exposure results from trapping the drug within the blood-brain barrier, an effect of the very transient alteration of the blood-brain barrier by HBBBD. Delivery is most effective when a drug is administered within 5 to 10 minutes after disruption. However, the increased exposure and exposure time that occur with methotrexate, the permeability of which is among the lowest of the agents currently used clinically, are limited and the disproportionate increase in brain exposure, compared to tumor exposure, may alter the therapeutic index of many drugs.

Product Number
Product Description

D-Mannitol, tested according to Ph. Eur.
D-Mannitol, suitable for plant cell culture
D-Mannitol, meets EP, FCC, USP testing specifications
D-Mannitol, BioXtra, ≥98% (HPLC)
D-Mannitol, ≥98%
D-Mannitol, ACS reagent
D-Mannitol, ACS reagent, suitable for microbiology, ≥99.0%
D-Mannitol, BioUltra, ≥99.0% (sum of enantiomers, HPLC)
Mannitol, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
D-Mannitol, ≥99.9999% (metals basis), for boron determination
Mannitol, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard