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  • Metal oxides, clay minerals and charcoal determine the composition of microbial communities in matured artificial soils and their response to phenanthrene.

Metal oxides, clay minerals and charcoal determine the composition of microbial communities in matured artificial soils and their response to phenanthrene.

FEMS microbiology ecology (2013-01-23)
Doreen Babin, Guo-Chun Ding, Geertje Johanna Pronk, Katja Heister, Ingrid Kögel-Knabner, Kornelia Smalla
ABSTRACT

Microbial communities in soil reside in a highly heterogeneous habitat where diverse mineral surfaces, complex organic matter and microorganisms interact with each other. This study aimed to elucidate the long-term effect of the soil mineral composition and charcoal on the microbial community composition established in matured artificial soils and their response to phenanthrene. One year after adding sterile manure to different artificial soils and inoculating microorganisms from a Cambisol, the matured soils were spiked with phenanthrene or not and incubated for another 70 days. 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer fragments amplified from total community DNA were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Metal oxides and clay minerals and to a lesser extent charcoal influenced the microbial community composition. Changes in the bacterial community composition in response to phenanthrene differed depending on the mineral composition and presence of charcoal, while no shifts in the fungal community composition were observed. The abundance of ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes was increased in phenanthrene-spiked soils except for charcoal-containing soils. Here we show that the formation of biogeochemical interfaces in soil is an ongoing process and that different properties present in artificial soils influenced the bacterial response to the phenanthrene spike.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Phenanthrene, 98%
Supelco
Phenanthrene, analytical standard, for environmental analysis
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenanthrene, sublimed grade, ≥99.5%
Supelco
Phenanthrene, certified reference material, TraceCERT®
Supelco
Phenanthrene solution, certified reference material, 5000 μg/mL in methanol