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  • Elastin sequences trigger transient proinflammatory responses by human dermal fibroblasts.

Elastin sequences trigger transient proinflammatory responses by human dermal fibroblasts.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (2013-05-15)
Jessica F Almine, Steven G Wise, Matti Hiob, Neeraj Kumar Singh, Krishna Kumar Tiwari, Shireen Vali, Taher Abbasi, Anthony S Weiss
ABSTRACT

Following penetrating injury of the skin, a highly orchestrated and overlapping sequence of events helps to facilitate wound resolution. Inflammation is a hallmark that is initiated early, but the reciprocal relationship between cells and matrix molecules that triggers and maintains inflammation is poorly appreciated. Elastin is enriched in the deep dermis of skin. We propose that deep tissue injury encompasses elastin damage, yielding solubilized elastin that triggers inflammation. As dermal fibroblasts dominate the deep dermis, this means that a direct interaction between elastin sequences and fibroblasts would reveal a proinflammatory signature. Tropoelastin was used as a surrogate for elastin sequences. Tropoelastin triggered fibroblast expression of the metalloelastase MMP-12, which is normally expressed by macrophages. MMP-12 expression increased 1056 ± 286-fold by 6 h and persisted for 24 h. Chemokine expression was more transient, as chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 8 (CXCL8), CXCL1, and CXCL5 transcripts increased 11.8 ± 2.6-, 10.2 ± 0.4-, and 8593 ± 996-fold, respectively, by 6-12 h and then decreased. Through the use of specific inhibitors and protein truncation, we found that transduction of the tropoelastin signal was mediated by the fibroblast elastin binding protein (EBP). In silico modeling using a predictive computational fibroblast model confirmed the up-regulation, and simulations revealed PKA as a key part of the signaling circuit. We tested this prediction with 1 μM PKA inhibitor H-89 and found that 2 h of exposure correspondingly reduced expression of MMP-12 (63.9±12.3%) and all chemokine markers, consistent with the levels seen with EBP inhibition, and validated PKA as a novel node and druggable target to ameliorate the proinflammatory state. A separate trigger that utilized C-terminal RKRK of tropoelastin reduced marker expression to 65.0-76.5% and suggests the parallel involvement of integrin αVβ3. We propose that the solubilization of elastin as a result of dermal damage leads to rapid chemokine up-regulation by fibroblasts that is quenched when exposed elastin is removed by MMP-12.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Elastin from bovine neck ligament, powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Elastin, soluble from bovine neck ligament, salt-free, lyophilized powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Elastin from human skin, insoluble powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Elastin, soluble from human lung, lyophilized powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Elastin, soluble from human aorta, lyophilized powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Elastin from mouse lung, powder