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  • Development of an in vitro thin-film solid-phase microextraction method to determine the bioavailability of xenoestrogens in soil.

Development of an in vitro thin-film solid-phase microextraction method to determine the bioavailability of xenoestrogens in soil.

Environmental toxicology and chemistry (2013-05-31)
Katherine Neafsey Engler, Ann T Lemley
ABSTRACT

Biosolids applied to agricultural fields, parks, and other areas represent significant sources of estrogen-like endocrine disrupting compound (EEDC) inputs to soil. It is important to determine the bioavailability of EEDCs in soil to inform risk assessment concerning their environmental presence; Eisenia fetida (earthworms) are typically used in traditional in vivo bioavailability experiments. The development of an in vitro bioavailability method will decrease time, expense, and use of solvents in future analyses. A thin-film solid-phase microextraction (TF-SPME) method for determining the bioavailability of several EEDCs detected in biosolids was developed and optimized. It was found that the TF-SPME method could be used to calculate equilibrium porewater concentrations of diethylhexyl phthalate, bisphenol A, benzophenone, and triclosan at environmentally relevant concentrations in artificial soil within 88 min. The potential and limitations of using TF-SPME-generated porewater concentrations to predict E. fetida tissue concentrations are discussed.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Benzophenone, FCC, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Triclosan, 97.0-103.0% (active substance, GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Benzophenone, ReagentPlus®, 99%
Supelco
Benzophenone, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Benzophenone, purified by sublimation, ≥99%
Supelco
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate solution, certified reference material, 2000 μg/mL in methanol
Benzophenone, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Supelco
Benzophenone, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Supelco
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, PESTANAL®, analytical standard
Supelco
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, Selectophore
Supelco
Mettler-Toledo Calibration substance ME 18870, Benzophenone, for the calibration of the thermosystem 900, traceable to primary standards (LGC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Dioctyl phthalate, ≥99.5%
Supelco
Melting point standard 47-49°C, analytical standard
Supelco
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, certified reference material, TraceCERT®