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Comparison of ionic and non-ionic drug release from multi-membrane spherical aerogels.

International journal of pharmaceutics (2013-07-16)
Anja Veronovski, Zeljko Knez, Zoran Novak
ABSTRACT

The presented research was oriented towards the preparation of dry biodegradable alginate aerogels with multi-membranes using a multi-step sol-gel process with potential applications as carriers during oral drug delivery. First alginate spherical hydrogels were formed in CaCl2 or BaCl2 solutions by ionic cross-linking. These cores were further immersed into alginate sodium solution, filtered through a sieve, and dropped into the salt solution again. Multi-membrane hydrogels were obtained by repeating the above process. They were further converted into aerogels by supercritical drying. The effect of the number of membranes was investigated regarding the loading and release of the model drugs nicotinic acid and theophylline. Moreover, the efficiencies of Ba(2+) and Ca(2+) metal ions for forming tridimensional networks that retain and extend drug release were also investigated. Nicotinic acid release was prolonged by adding membranes around the core and using Ca(2+) for cross-linking. However, retarded theophylline release was only obtained by using Ba(2+) for cross-linking. Namely, by increasing the number of membranes and BaCl2 concentration drug release became linear versus time in all studied cases. In the case of nicotinic acid loading increased by adding membranes around the core, however, for theophylline the opposite results were obtained due to the different nature of the model drugs.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium chloride dihydrate, ACS reagent, ≥99%
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Sodium alginate
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Calcium chloride solution, BioUltra, for molecular biology, ~1 M in H2O
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Calcium chloride dihydrate, for molecular biology, ≥99.0%
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Calcium chloride dihydrate, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, suitable for plant cell culture, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Nicotinic acid, ≥98%
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Alginic acid sodium salt from brown algae, Medium viscosity
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Calcium chloride, meets USP testing specifications
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Theophylline, anhydrous, ≥99%, powder
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Barium chloride dihydrate, ACS reagent, ≥99%
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Calcium chloride, anhydrous, BioReagent, suitable for insect cell culture, suitable for plant cell culture, ≥96.0%
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Calcium chloride, anhydrous, powder, 99.99% trace metals basis
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Calcium chloride dihydrate, ReagentPlus®, ≥99.0%
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Barium chloride, 99.9% trace metals basis
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Alginic acid sodium salt from brown algae, low viscosity
Supelco
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Calcium chloride dihydrate, BioXtra, ≥99.0%
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Barium chloride dihydrate, ≥99%
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Nicotinic acid, ≥99.5% (HPLC)
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Nicotinic acid, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, suitable for plant cell culture, ≥98%
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Supelco
Calcium standard for AAS, analytical standard, 1.000 g/L Ca+2 in hydrochloric acid, traceable to BAM
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Calcium chloride dihydrate, BioUltra, for molecular biology, ≥99.5% (KT)
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Barium chloride, 99.999% trace metals basis
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Alginic acid sodium salt from brown algae, BioReagent, suitable for plant cell culture, low viscosity, powder